Utilization of Video as a Tool to Improve Teacher Teaching Skills (by Dewi Rachmatin)

It was announced at the Second International Conference on Primary Education at UPI Sumedang Campus, October 29, 2011

By:

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(sujanadewi@yahoo.com)

Department of Mathematics Education FPMIPA UPI Bandung

Abstract

Rapid advances in video-camera technology allow us to video the learning fields of mathematics and science in the classroom for learning or research purposes on a small scale. One of the advantages of using video to cover learning for teachers and prospective teachers is that videos raise research questions and analysis categories arising from data in the form of videos and actual events in the classroom can be observed over and over again.

Teacher quality improvement programs have been widely carried out. However, such activities do not provide meaningful changes to learning in the classroom. After participating in a master’s activity, the way teachers teach is still like before participating in the management activities (Widodo, 2006). The same is happening to prospective teachers. Although in lectures students are taught by various methods but when they practice teaching in schools, the way they teach does not show any meaningful innovation (Widodo, 2006). This indicates the need for new alternatives to improve the teaching ability of teachers/prospective teachers.

Through Lesson Study activities that have been pioneered since 2006 samapai 2010 in Sumedang Regency (activities carried out in cooperation with JICA “Japan Incorporation Agency“, DIKTI, FPMIPA UPI Bandung and Dinas Pendidikan Kab. Sumedang) has made efforts to improve the teaching skills of mathematics and science teachers (Chemistry, Physics and Biology). Especially for biology teachers/ prospective teachers have been made efforts to develop the professionalism of biology teachers by Widodo et al. (2007) through a video-based coaching program package.

Keywords : video, improving teacher teaching skills, developing teacher professionalism.

A. Manfaat Penggunaan Video

Why use video as a form of data to learn learning in the classroom? Traditionally the way to measure learning in the classroom on a broad scale has been widely used by teachers (for example is a questionnaire). In general, questionnaires are economical and relatively easy to use to administer large numbers of respondents, and responses can usually be ready to be transformed into data files ready to be animated by statistics. However, using questionnaires to learn learning in the classroom is a problem because it is difficult for teachers to remember events and interactions in the classroom that happen quickly. More than that, the differences in questions mean something different for different teachers, because it creates valid issues.

Video offers an alternative to learning, with special advantages. For example, a video can explain in detail the complex learning activities from various points of view. However, videos still have various flaws. For example, at some point we focus on parts of the video component that are rarely discussed.

Rapid advances in video-camera technology allow us to video the learning fields of mathematics and science in the classroom for learning or research purposes, while advances in information technology allow us to distribute large learning video data around the world. The learning video can be accessed, observed and analyzed by prospective teachers in pre-service training or in-service training, to be then reflected and discussed with fellow colleagues.

Following the advice of some video ers, it can be summed up some of the advantages and conveniences of video:

  • The video raises research questions and categories of analysis arising from the data: a recording of actual events can be observed over and over again;
  • Video provides uninterpreted data;
  • Video has less theoretical attachment than other methods of data collection;
  • Create possibilities of cross-lesson and cross-cultural negotiations;
  • Can repeat the analysis of the same data from a different theory point of view in the future;
  • Provides “concrete references to finding a division of language about the learning process;
  • Video facilitates the integration of qualitative and quantitative analysis, then helps prioritize the dichotomy between qualitative and quantitative research;
  • It creates the possibility for a new color analysis of complex processes that bind to observable facts.

The professional development program for teachers is to look at the personal needs of the teachers’ professions as well as the importance of acknowledging that by looking at various efforts based on learning can be made. Such programs focus on teacher activities in testing their students’ work, student performance, planning cooperation, learning from learning and renewing it, and reflecting on individuals and groups. This paradigm changes from working in an environment to working collaboratively that is perceived to be accepted by teachers.

According to Stigler (2002), some of the approaches used in developing professional teachers include:

  1. Teachers need to learn to analyze the teaching practices of fellow teachers and themselves. This means that by analyzing it the teacher thinks about the relationship between learning and learning;
  2. Teachers need to open up to alternatives to learning;
  3. Teachers need situational assessments to know when they are implementing learning methods.

It is based on the thought that learning is a cultural activity as opposed to learning something in school. Most teachers learn to teach by seeing the teacher teach. Then customize the method for his learning. Changing learning means changing the culture of teaching for an exercise based on knowledge.

Roth (in Herdiana & Rachmatin, 2007) presented three recommendations to change the learning culture to improve student achievement through professional development programs for teachers:

  1. Teachers are asked to take time (daily or weekly) to learn learning practices that focus on learning planning and reflect its effectiveness;
  2. Teachers provided various examples of alternative learning methods;
  3. Teachers are given the opportunity to analyze students’ work and understand students’ thinking to improve and improve their thinking.

Teachers who study videos find useful experiences in three ways:

  1. Increase their awareness of their learning practices, making them feel the power to change the routine habits that have been experienced and required;
  2. Open their minds to alternative ideas for IPA learning that were never thought of before; Dan
  3. Provides concrete references to discussions and collaborations with colleagues on issues related to improving learning and learning.

B. Konsep Dasar Penggunaan Video

A good learning video is a video that suggests an accurate and permanent visual recording. Provides all images and sounds to create sense to those interactions. It does not impede memory records or interpretations behind the observer to reconstruct recorded interactions. In any case, the video has been detached from the perspective issue. The visual footage captured by the video is based on the videographer’s perspective. The interactions in the classroom that the videographer notices become the focus of the camera and other scenes of interaction around the class become ignored. On the other hand, if the camera is placed still and positioned to look at the class as a whole, we will cover the interaction of all students, but expand the opportunity to be able to observe more detailed interactions.

When we are going to record a lesson in class via video, it must be determined the choices of the purpose. Are we going to record the entire class activity that might be analyzed later, or are we just going to focus on certain student interactions to get a more detailed view of those interactions?. Videographers will usually focus their cameras on all the events that caught their attention.

C. Pemanfaatan Video Pembelajaran

The author has experience as a documentation team from the Lesson Study team in Sumedang and Karawang. The author was involved in the documentation team since the initial launch of Lesson Study in Sumedang in July 2006 which is a collaboration of JICA, DIKTI and Dinas Pendidikan Kab. Sumedang. The author’s job as a documentation team is to cover mathematics/science learning in junior high school/Mts which was chosen as the place to conduct Open Lesson.

The documentation team has been equipped with knowledge to operate recording devices such as video-cameras, tripods/monopods, voice recorders etc, also equipped with the knowledge to become a reliable cameraman through trainings held by ava team in cooperation with JICA by bringing in experts in the field of video learning. Prior to departure to Sumedang for both Conference and Implementation, the Documentation Team always gets guidance and direction in advance from the chairman of the Documentation Team and ava team (Audio Visual).

Therefore, for each field of Mathematics and Science (Chemistry, Physics and Biology) divided into 8 groups /teams (A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and H), then for each group assigned a personnel (members), if there are members who are not always prepared replacement members who are always ready if necessary. The placement of the eight personnel is divided into 8 state junior high schools in different Sumedang. Group A was placed in SMPN Jatinagor, group B in SMPN 1 Tanjungsari, group C in SMPN 4 Sumedang, group D in SMPN 5 Sumedang, group E in SMPN 1 Situraja, group F in Darmaraja, group G in SMPN Paseh, and group G in SMPN Tomo. The first four groups are groups A, B, C and D carrying out Lesson Study activities a week ahead of groups E, F, G and H.

At the implementation stage when arriving at the lesson studyvenue, each personnel checks the venue and installs recording devices such as tripods and video-cameras to then carry out the recording of conference/implementation activities. The average time required for the implementation of LS Implementation is 3 hours ( 2 hours implementation and 1 hour of reflection). While at the documentation stage, each completed recording results are directly transferred with the help of U-Lead software using 4 computers that support for data transfer and created the results in the form of VCD so that it can be replayed for reflecting by model teachers and other teachers, as well as FPMIPA UPI lecturers who become facilitators and MONEV Teams that evaluate implementation activities.

For good quality recording results, 3 cameras are required that simultaneously record one learning activity, the first camera focuses on the entire student to see the entire class, the second camera focuses on the teacher to see the teacher’s interaction with the student, and the third camera that can move from one student/group to another to see the interaction between students. Due to the limitations of the camera in the coverage of lesson study activities in Sumedang, it is certainly impossible to implement. However, this has been anticipated by maximise the performance of one camera by selecting the student’s main focus.

Some of the aspects seen in the Open Lesson activities in lesson study include:

  • are all students enthusiastic about learning or not?
  • what is the focus of attention for students or teachers?
  • are the learning outcomes that teachers want with the various learning methods given have been achieved or not?
  • is the teacher’s interaction with students good enough?
  • is student interaction with students good enough? Especially this should be seen for group discussion activities or in cooperative learning.

Of all the aspects that must be missed with the results of recording learning activities in the form of videos from the results of shooting only one camera used, making the task of a Documentation Team very difficult. Moreover, the activities seen on camera should be visible activities that actually take place in the classroom and not activities engineered by the picture taker. So that every implementation activity is completed, there is always a self-evaluation for each member of the Documentation Team so that the results are as good as possible or the quality is better.

E. Pengembangan Paket Program Coaching Berbasis Video

The problem of improving the professionalism of teachers / prospective teachers that occurs is when it is known that the achievement of students is not satisfactory, then teachers are often the party to blame. Then came the phrase that teachers are not professional. In an effort to address this “unprofessionalism”, ideas such as salary increases, education improvements, teachers should also conduct research, certification tests, etc. These things are certainly not wrong, but professionalism is actually more determined by the mastery of professional knowledge and skills, the mechanisms for improving that knowledge and skills, and the desire to constantly improve (Stigler & Hiebert, 1999 in Widodo, 2007).

The problems associated with improving the professional skills of teachers are quite strange. The reality in the field shows that in the current conditions, increased teacher professionalism and changes in the way of teaching in the classroom are difficult to achieve. Despite receiving various inputs for learning improvements, teachers and prospective teachers seem to be not reeling from traditional teaching methods. There are several causes that cause why efforts to improve the professionalism of teachers /prospective teachers have not reached the target (Widodo, 2007).

  • First, education researchers and education experts tend to be “selfish”. The educational innovations they develop are usually only “enjoyed” among themselves. Research reports, scientific journals, books, seminars usually involve less teachers.
  • Second, the studies conducted by researchers generally lead to generalizations that apply generally, whereas the learning problems faced by teachers are often local and contextual.
  • There have been no similarities of words and actions between researchers and teachers. Issues that are considered interesting and important by researchers are often not issues that are really important to teachers.
  • The education and training system of teachers/prospective teachers that separates the material aspects and aspects of pedagogy. Lecturers of materials courses and stylists tend to assume that their main task is to convey the material so as not to pay attention to the pedagogy aspect.
  • Lack of real examples that can be used as a reference for teachers/ prospective teachers.

The above shows that the program of improving the professionalism of teachers /prospective teachers should be more oriented towards the interests of teachers. This means that these programs must stem from the real problems faced by every teacher. Because teacher problems are often contextual and individual, it is also necessary to improve the professionalism of appropriate teachers, such as coaching.

Coaching is a term commonly used in the field of professionalism development of a person in the field of work. Coaching is widely used in industry and management in improving the professional capabilities of individuals within a company. The use of coaching methods in improving teacher professionalism is still very rare because the increase in teacher professionalism is usually still done en masse through stewards, and workshops.

Coaching is an individual service to someone who wants to improve his professional skills in his field of work (Widodo, 2007). Coaching for teachers is an expert service process for teachers in an effort to improve the professional skills of teachers. Methodologically all processes that occur in coaching activities are carried out with regard to the principles of providing professional services to teachers..

Blueprint of the coaching program package that Widodo et al have developed. (2007) consists of a software that coaches can use to analyze videos and write comments as well as some selected learning video snippets. The software developed was named “Video analyzer” (see Widodo et al. 2007).

Coaching,especially coaching based on video recording learning, has not done much. Research conducted by a team of researchers at the Free University of Berlin, Germany (Fischler, et.all 2002; Schröder & Fischler, 2003 in Widodo 2007) revealed that teachers who had followed coaching showed significant improvement in the way they taught. After following the teacher’s coaching views on how to teach effectively changed and it was shown in learning activities that changed from teacher-centered learning (lectures) to student-centered learning. The analysis of the teacher’s learning activities also shows that teachers teach using more varied learning methods.

F. Saran

Because the use of video is easier and affordable, it allows teachers / prospective teachers / lecturers can video the learning of mathematics and science in the classroom for learning or research purposes. Small-scale research projects can be carried out by teachers to effectively use video as a data collection device for learning activities in the classroom.

The results of the learning coverage in the classroom in the form of learning videos can be accessed, observed and analyzed by teachers / prospective teachers / lecturers to be reflected and discussed with fellow colleagues. When a teacher observes a recording of the learning, the teacher can find the weakness of the learning. Observing the learning footage itself can encourage teachers to reflect on what they have done and help them find things that need to be improved. On the contrary, when observing other teacher learning recordings, the weaknesses and advantages of other teachers can also be valuable lessons for the teacher concerned (Widodo, 2007).

The utilization of learning videos in the form of vcd learning can also be done by teachers. Teachers can record demonstrations/practicums that are not presented directly in class and the results are viewed through movie screenings. Here the film as a learning medium created by teachers can be used to understand the elusive concepts of students.

Bibliography

Hendriana, D. and Dewi Rachmatin, (2007). Use of Learning Videos to Develop Teacher Professionalism Through Lesson Study Activities. National Conference lesson study. Bandung : FPMIPA UPI Bandung.

Stigler, J. (2002). Creating a Knowledge Base for Teaching: A Conversation with James Stigler. Redesigning Professional Development. Vol. 59, No. 6, Pages 6-11. Educational Leadership. [Available Online : http://www.ascd.org/publications/educationalleadership/mar02/vol59/num06/Creating-a-Knowledge-Base-for-Teaching@-A-Conversation-with-James-Stigler.aspx].

Widodo, A. Riandi, Amprasto & Ana Ratna Wulan. (2006). Analysis of the impact of science teacher professionalism improvement programs on improving the quality of science learning in schools. Research report of Balitbang Policy Grant Ministry.

Widodo, A. Riandi and Supriatno, (2007). Development of Video-Based Coaching Program Package to improve teaching skills of teachers and prospective biology teachers. Competing Grant Research Report.