Rumors Behind Curriculum Change (by Endang Mulyana)

One of the causes of enacted curriculum is technological advancement. In the United States (US) it has been felt since the second world war that it lacks people who can handle cutting-edge weapons and war tools such as rockets, radars and others. The launch of the first Sputnik by Russia (a major US competitor) in 1957 triggered an unwary renewal of mathematics and science teaching. There is a drastic update on the subject matter of mathematics, known as modern mathematics or New Math (Ruseffendi, 1988).

The 1968 curriculum change to the 1975 curriculum, especially related to mathematics subjects, was initiated by mathematics lecturers in Indonesia, most of whose lectures in the US include Ruseffendi, Abdul Kodir, Andi Hakim Nasution, Toetojo and friends. Before 1975 we did not know the subjects of mathematics, but counted for elementary, algebra and measuring sciences for junior high school, while for high school is divided into several subjects namely, space measuring science, angle measuring science, analytical measuring, and algebra. The department of mathematics education in the FPMIPA environment, formerly a definite science major located at the Faculty of Teachers of Exakta Sciences (FKIE) IKIP Bandung.

When the 1968 curriculum was implemented, the writer was in high school. Learning mathematics is perceived as memorizing facts and formulas, as well as procedures and using them in solving questions that commonly appear in the subjects of Angle Measuring Science, Space Measuring Science, Analytical Measuring Science, and Algebra. The teacher’s teaching is to explain facts, formulas, give some examples of questions, practice, then end with a replay (test). Surprisingly math learning in schools now, there is still a lot like it, even though the curriculum has changed several times.

In the 1975 curriculum, the mathematics curriculum in junior high school and high school was based on a book of mathematics lessons from the book “Modern Mathematics for Schools” by Scoottish Mathematics Group. As for elementary school mathematics adapted from the book “Enttebbe Mathematics Series” by Education Development Centre, Massachusett, USA. These are the best math student books ever used in Indonesia. The books present relational (mathematical) knowledge, not merely procedural knowledge. The books contain directly mathematical objects in a balanced manner, the structure is systematic and corresponds to the development of the student’s level of thinking.

The change of the 1975 curriculum to the 1984 curriculum, according to the story of a professor of mathematics education, is said to have been caused by a proposal from the publisher’s entrepreneurs to the Minister of Education and Culture. The book of mathematics used in junior high school and high school, published by two publishers, Balai Pustaka and Intermasa. While other publishers do not get the opportunity to earn income from the printer of mathematical books. The content of junior and high school math materials in the 1984 curriculum is exactly the same, which distinguishes only the order of the altered, even there is grade 1 material moved to grade 2 or vice versa. The change in the order of the Teaching Program Outline (GBPP), gives publishers the opportunity to participate in the tender of procurement of mathematics books from each province.

In the 1984 curriculum was introduced how to Learn Active Students (CBSA), and the elementary school in Cianjur was used as a pilot project. Students learn by setting classes in groups, learning by discussing the tasks provided by the teacher. When they learn there are students who turn their backs on the board, and this becomes a problem when the teacher gives comments and explanations of the student’s work. The student sitting behind the board, he had to turn his body when he saw the teacher’s explanation. When Mr. Minister of Education sees that, feeling sorry for the students, then CBSA should not proceed.

If the curriculum is not replaced, the publisher does not have a major project, one way is to change the curriculum. GBPP Mathematics Curriculum 1996 differs only slightly from the GBPP curriculum of 1984. However, the structure and order of the junior and high school math courses, the further away from the saduran books used in the 1975 curriculum. The authors of the math book, add more mathematical procedures through examples of problems. The difficulty of training questions is improved.

The emergence of the KBK curriculum was triggered by the emergence of a mathematical standard curriculum developed by NCTM in the US. KbK curriculum is limited to discourse and trials, the issue of assessment written in the study results report at that time in 2003 is quite controversial among teachers. At that time, the government put the first set of national education laws and teachers and lecturers, only then developed the KTSP curriculum, with the forerunner of the KBK curriculum minus its assessment.

Curriculum 2006 was born after the birth of the National Education System Law No. 20 of 2003. In the 2006 curriculum there are various standards, ranging from content standards, graduate competency standards, process standards, other standards. In the 2006 curriculum there was a shift from the teaching paradigm to the learning paradigm, from teacher-centered to student-centered. But in the implementation of the learning process in the classroom until now has not changed much. Whether it’s using the 1975, 1984, 1996, or 2006 curriculums, math learning in the classroom is relatively unchanged. Math learning begins with the teacher explaining a concept, fact, principle, or procedure, then the teacher gives an example of the problem, the student practices solving the questions, in class and at home, and ends with the test. Why is that? What’s wrong? As long as this question is unanswered, changing the curriculum with any curriculum including the 2013 curriculum will not change the state of math learning in the classroom.